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frauen in saudi arabien

Apr. Kinos, Konzerte, Frauen am Steuer und in Fußballstadien – Kronprinz Mohammed bin Salman will Saudi-Arabien modernisieren und den. Was Frauen in Saudiarabien alles nicht dürfen. Am Samstag konnten Frauen in dem Königreich erstmals an Kommunalwahlen teilnehmen. Vieles bleibt ihnen. In Saudi-Arabien sind die Rechte der Frauen eingeschränkt, das Land hat die UN-Frauenrechtskonvention am 7.

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Die Benachteiligung der Frauen in Saudi-Arabien. Comments 0 Please log in to add your comment. Die schwarze Spinne Beziehungsnetz 2. Creating downloadable prezi, be patient.

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Send this link to let others join your presentation: The woman is merely a piece of merchandise, which is passed over to someone else—her guardian Ultimately, I think women are greatly feared.

When I compare the Saudi man with other Arab men, I can say that the Saudi is the only man who could not compete with the woman.

He could not compete, so what did he do with her? The woman has capabilities. When women study, they compete with the men for jobs.

All jobs are open to men. You do not feel any competition If you do not face competition from the Saudi woman All positions and jobs are reserved for you.

Therefore, you are a spoiled and self-indulged man. The absurdity of the guardianship system, according to Huwaider, is shown by what would happen if she tried to remarry: The Saudi government has approved international and domestic declarations regarding women's rights, and insists that there is no law of male guardianship.

Officially, it maintains that international agreements are applied in the courts. International organizations and NGOs are skeptical.

It was announced in May that King Salman had passed an order allowing women to obtain government services such as education and health care without the need of permission from a guardian.

Male guardianship is closely related to namus or " sharaf " in a Bedouin context , roughly translated as "honor.

The namus of a male includes the protection of the females in his family. He provides for them, and in turn the women's honor sometimes called " ird " reflects on him.

Namus is a common feature of many different patriarchal societies. Since the namus of a male guardian is affected by that of the women under his care, he is expected to control their behavior.

If their honor is lost, in the eyes of the community he has lost control of them. Threats to chastity , in particular, are threats to the namus of the male guardian.

Namus is associated with honor killing. If a man loses namus because of a woman in his family, he may attempt to cleanse his honor by punishing her.

In extreme cases, the punishment can be death. The suspicion alone of a woman's wrongdoing can be enough for her to be subject to violence in the name of honour.

In , a young woman was murdered by her father for chatting with a man on Facebook. The case attracted a lot of media attention.

Conservatives called for the government to ban Facebook, because it incites lust and causes social strife by encouraging gender mingling.

A hijab is a traditional Islamic norm whereby women are required "to draw their outer garments around them when they go out or are among men " and dress in a modest manner.

Among non-mahram men, women must cover the parts of the body that are awrah not meant to be exposed. In much of Islam, a women's face is not considered awrah.

In Saudi Arabia and some other Arab states, all of the body is considered awrah except the hands and eyes. Accordingly, most women are expected to wear the hijab head covering , a full black cloak called an abaya, and a face-veil called niqab.

Many historians and Islamic scholars hold that the custom, if not requirement, of the veil predates Islam in parts of the region. They argue that the Quran was interpreted to require the veil as part of adapting it to tribal traditions.

Traditionally, women's clothing must not reveal anything about her body. It is supposed to be thick, opaque, and loose.

It should not resemble the clothing of men or non-Muslims. The strictness of the dress code varies by region. In Jeddah, for example, many women go out with their faces uncovered; Riyadh however, is more conservative.

Some shops sell designer abayas that have elements such as flared sleeves or a tighter form. Fashionable abayas come in colors other than black, and may be decorated with patterns and glitter.

According to one designer, abayas are "no longer just abayas. Today, they reflect a woman's taste and personality. Although the dress code is often regarded in the West as a highly visible symbol of oppression, Saudi women place the dress code low on the list of priorities for reform or leave it off entirely.

She calls the niqab "trivial": People lose sight of the bigger issues like jobs and education. That's the issue of women's rights, not the meaningless things like passing legislation in France or Quebec to ban the burqa Non-Saudis presume to know what's best for Saudis, like Saudis should modernize and join the 21st century or that Saudi women need to be free of the veil and abaya And by freeing Saudi women, the West really means they want us to be just like them, running around in short skirts, nightclubbing and abandoning our religion and culture.

Some women say they want to wear a veil also known as Burqa or Niqab - hijab is not a veil. They cite Islamic piety, pride in family traditions, and less sexual harassment from male colleagues.

For many women, the dress code is a part of the right to modesty that Islam guarantees women. Some also perceive attempts at reform as anti-Islamic intrusion by Westerners.

Faiza al-Obaidi, a biology professor, said: In , a woman became the first female anchor to appear on Saudi state television without a headscarf.

In , a woman was arrested for appearing in a viral video dressed in a short skirt and halter top walking around an ancient fort in Ushayqir.

She was released following an international outcry. Although she did not wear a crop top and short skirt, she was still arrested.

Sexual segregation which keeps wives, sisters and daughters from contact with stranger men, follows from the extreme concern for female purity and family honour.

Social events are largely predicated on the separation of men and women; the mixing of non-kin men and women at parties or the like is extremely rare and limited to some of the modernist Western-educated families.

Most Saudi homes have one entrance for men and another for women. For non-related males to enter the female sections of a Saudi home is a violation of family honour.

The Arab word for the secluded section of the house is harim which means at once 'forbidden' and 'sacred'. Private space is associated with women while the public space, such as the living room, is reserved for men.

Traditional house designs also use high walls, compartmentalized inner rooms, and curtains to protect the family and particularly women from the public.

Moreover, sex segregation is expected in public. In restaurants, banks and other public places in Saudi Arabia, women are required to enter and exit through special doors.

Non-mahram women and men must minimize social interaction. Companies traditionally have been expected to create all-female areas if they hire women.

Public transportation is segregated. Public places such as beaches and amusement parks are also segregated, sometimes by time, so that men and women attend at different hours.

Segregation is particularly strict in restaurants, since eating requires removal of the veil. Most restaurants in Saudi Arabia have "family" and "bachelor" sections, the latter for unmarried men or men without a family to accompany.

Women or men with their families have to sit in the family section. In the families section, diners are usually seated in separate rooms or behind screens and curtains.

Waiters are expected to give time for women to cover up before entering, although this practice is not always followed.

Restaurants typically bar entrance to women who come without their husbands or mahram, although if they are allowed in, it will be to the family section.

Women are barred from waitressing, except at a few women-only restaurants. Western companies often enforce Saudi religious regulations in restaurants, which has prompted some Western activists to criticise those companies.

McDonald's , Pizza Hut , Starbucks , and other US firms, for instance, maintain segregated eating zones in their restaurants. The facilities in the families' section are usually lower in quality.

Exceptions to segregation rules sometimes include hospitals, medical colleges, and banks. The number of mixed-gender workplaces has increased since King Abdullah was crowned, although they are still not common.

As a practical matter, gender mixing is fairly common in parts of daily life. Women customarily take taxis driven by men. Many households have maids, who mix with the unrelated men of the households.

The opening of the first co-educational university in caused a debate over segregation. A prominent cleric argued that segregation cannot be grounded in Sharia.

He suggested those who advocate it are hypocrites: Mixing was part of normal life for the Ummah Muslim world and its societies Those who prohibit the mixing of the genders actually live it in their real lives, which is an objectionable contradiction as every fair-minded Muslim should follow Shariah judgments without excess or negligence.

In many Muslim houses—even those of Muslims who say mixing is haram forbidden —you can find female servants working around unrelated males.

In Khamisa Mohammad Sawadi, a year-old woman, was sentenced to 40 lashes and imprisonment for allowing a man to deliver bread to her directly in her home.

Sawadi, a non-citizen, was deported. In , a clerical adviser to the Royal court and Ministry of Justice issued a fatwa suggesting that women should provide breast milk to their employed drivers thereby making them relatives a concept known as Rada.

The fatwa was ridiculed by women campaigners. As part of its reform drive, the kingdom lifted the prohibition of women entering sports stadiums.

Women were previously barred by rules of segregation in public. The women were segregated from the male-only sections, and were seated in the "family section".

There are certain limitations to women doing business in the KSA. Although now able to drive motor vehicles, women are still required to have men swear for them in a court of law.

As real estate investor Loulwa al-Saidan complained,. For me to go to any government agency or to the court to buy or sell property, as a woman I am obligated to bring two men as witnesses to testify to my identity, and four male witnesses to testify that the first two are credible witnesses, and actually know me.

Where is any woman going to find six men to go with her to the court?! It's hard for me to get my legal rights According to the International Labour Organization , Saudi women constitute When foreign expatriate workers are included in the total, the percentage of working Saudi women drops further to 6.

The Saudi delegation to the United Nations International Women's Year conference in Mexico City in and the Decade for women conference in Nairobi in , was made up entirely of men.

Employment for women has a number of restrictions under Saudi law and culture. According to the Saudi Labor Minister Dr. Ghazi Al-Qusaibi speaking in We will also make sure that the [woman's] job will not interfere with her work at home with her family, or with her eternal duty of raising her children A woman's work must also be deemed suitable for the female physique and mentality.

Women are allowed to work only in capacities in which they can serve women exclusively; there must be no contact or interaction with the opposite gender.

Most working women, however, out of necessity and practicality travel to work without a male relative and are alone with a driver.

Consequently, until , women worked only as doctors, nurses, teachers, women's banks, or in a few other special situations where they had contact only with women.

Almost all of these women had college and graduate degrees, and were employed either in schools, where men were not permitted to teach girls; or in hospitals, because conservative families prefer that female doctors and nurse treat their wives, sisters, and daughters.

Women's banks were an innovation allowed in to give women a place to put their money without having to have any contact with men.

The banks employ women exclusively for every position except for the guards posted at the door to see that no men enter by mistake.

While the Labor Minister Al-Qusaibi stressed the need for women to stay at home he also stated that "there is no option but to start [finding] jobs for the millions of women" in Saudi Arabia.

Many Saudi women also disliked discussing the subject of their undergarments with male shop clerks. However, the move met opposition from within the ministry and from conservative Saudis, [97] who argued the presence of women outside the home encouraged ikhtilat , and that according to their interpretation of Sharia, a woman's work outside the house is against her fitrah natural state.

The few shops that employed women were "quickly closed by the religious police " aka Hai'i. The decrees came at "the height of the Arab Spring " and were "widely interpreted" by activists as an attempt to preempt "pro-democracy protests.

In , the Ministry and the Hai'a leadership met to negotiate new terms. In November , religious police signed a letter stating that female employment was causing such a drastic increase in instances of ikhtilat , that "their job was becoming impossible.

When women do work jobs also held by men, they often find it difficult to break into full-time work with employee benefits like allowances, health insurance and social security.

According to a report in the Saudi Gazette , an employer told a female reporter that her health insurance coverage did not include care for childbirth, but that of a male employee included such coverage for his wife.

Saudi women are now seen developing professional careers as doctors, teachers and even business leaders, a process described by in by ABC News as "painfully slow.

Salwa Al-Hazzaa , head of the ophthalmology department at King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh [] and Lubna Olayan , named by Forbes and Time as one of the world's most influential businesswomen.

Some "firsts" in Saudi women's employment occurred in , when the Kingdom registered its first female trainee lawyer Arwa al-Hujaili , [] its first female lawyer to be granted an official license from its Ministry of Justice Bayan Mahmoud Al-Zahran , [] and the first female Saudi police officer Ayat Bakhreeba.

Bakhreeba earned her master's degree in public law from the Dubai police academy and is the first police woman to obtain a degree from the high-level security institute.

Saudi Arabia opened some non-combat military jobs to women in February The quality of education is lower for females than males. Curricula and textbooks are updated less frequently, and teachers tend to be less qualified.

At the higher levels, males have better research facilities. One of the official educational policies is to promote "belief in the One God, Islam as the way of life, and Muhammad as God's Messenger.

Saudi women often specify education as the most important area for women's rights reform. Public education in Saudi Arabia is sex-segregated at all levels, and in general females and males do not attend the same school.

Moreover, men are forbidden from teaching or working at girls' schools and women are not allowed to teach at boys' schools. Religious belief about gender roles and the perception that education is more relevant for men has resulted in fewer educational opportunities for women.

The tradition of sex segregation in professional life is used to justify restricting women's fields of study. Traditionally, women have been excluded from studying engineering, pharmacy , architecture, and law.

Saudi women can also study any subject they wish while abroad. Customs of male guardianship and purdah curtail women's ability to study abroad.

Women are encouraged to study for service industries or social sciences. Education, medicine, public administration, natural sciences, social sciences, and Islamic studies are deemed appropriate for women.

The King Abdullah University of Science and Technology , which opened in September , is Saudi Arabia's first coeducational campus where men and women study alongside each other.

Women attend classes with men, drive on campus, and are not required to veil themselves. Classes are taught in English.

The opening of the university caused public debate. Addressing the issue, Sheikh Ahmad Qassim Al-Ghamdi, chief of the Makkah region's mutaween, claimed that gender segregation has no basis in Sharia, or Islamic law, and has been incorrectly applied in the Saudi judicial system.

Al-Ghamdi said that hadith , the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, makes no references to gender segregation, and mixing is therefore permitted under Sharia.

There were many calls for and rumors of his dismissal. Technology is a central part of higher education for women. Many women's colleges use distance education from home to compensate for women's poor access to transportation.

Since there are few female lecturers, some universities use videoconferencing to have male professors teach female students without face-to-face contact.

Child marriage hinders the cause of women's education, because traditional responsibilities and child-bearing are too burdensome.

The drop-out rate of girls increases around puberty, as they drop out of school upon marriage. In , the king appointed Norah al-Faiz a deputy minister for women's education, the first female cabinet-level official.

Saudi Arabia was one of the few countries in the Olympics without a female delegation—although female athletes do exist.

In June , the Saudi Arabian Embassy in London announced that female athletes would compete in the Olympics in in London, England for the first time.

In , the Saudi government sanctioned sports for girls in private schools for the first time. In their article, "Saudi Arabia to let women into sports stadiums," Emanuella Grinberg and Jonny Hallam explain how the conservative Saudi adhere to the strictest interpretation of Sunni in the world.

Under their guardianship system, women can not travel or play sports without permission from their male guardians.

Some of these strict rules in Saudi Arabia have started to change. The Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman allowed women in every part of Saudi society to practice and ask for their rights.

Nevertheless, one of the biggest changes in the Saudi community is in women's sports, with Mohammed bin Salman allowing and supporting women playing sports inside and outside their schools, and allowing women to attend stadiums.

In September , women were allowed to enter King Fahd Stadium for the first time, for a celebration commemorating the Kingdom's 87th anniversary.

They were seated in a specific section for families. Though welcomed by many, the move drew backlash from conservatives holding on to the country's strict gender segregation rules.

Women must show the signed permission from a mahram close male relative—husband, son, father, uncle or grandson before she is free to travel, even inside Saudi Arabia.

Many of the laws controlling women apply to citizens of other countries who are relatives of Saudi men. For example, the following women require a male guardian's permission to leave the country: Foreign-citizen women married to Saudi men, adult foreign-citizen women who are the unmarried daughters of Saudi fathers, and foreign-citizen boys under the age of 21 with a Saudi father.

In , Saudi women were first allowed to ride bicycles, although only around parks and other "recreational areas. Until June , women were not allowed to drive in Saudi Arabia, the only country in the world at the time with such a restriction.

Salman's orders gave responsible departments 30 days to prepare reports for implementation of this, with the target of removing the ban on women's drivers licenses by June Saudi Arabia has had no written ban on women driving, but Saudi law requires citizens to use a locally issued license while in the country.

Such licenses had not been issued to women, making it effectively illegal for women to drive. Allowing women to drive was tolerated in rural areas, [37] due to a combination of need, "because their families' survival depends on it," and that the mutaween "can't effectively patrol" remote areas, according to one Saudi native; although as of , mutaween were clamping down on this freedom.

Critics rejected the ban on driving on the grounds that: On 6 November , 47 Saudi women, with valid licenses issued in other countries, drove the streets of Riyadh in protest of the ban on Saudi women drivers.

They were released after their male guardians signed statements that they would not drive again, but thousands of leaflets with their names and their husbands' names — with "whores" and "pimps" scrawled next to them — circulated around the city.

The women were suspended from jobs, had their passports confiscated, and were told not to speak to the press. About a year after the protest, they returned to work and recovered their passports, but they were kept under surveillance and passed over for promotions.

In , advocates for the right of women to drive in Saudi Arabia collected about 1, signatures, hoping to persuade King Abdullah to lift the ban, but they were unsuccessful.

King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia said that he thought women would drive when the society was ready for it: I believe strongly in the rights of women. My mother is a woman.

My sister is a woman. My daughter is a woman. My wife is a woman. I believe the day will come when women will drive. In fact if you look at the areas of Saudi Arabia, the desert, and in the rural areas, you will find that women do drive.

The issue will require patience. In time I believe that it will be possible. I believe that patience is a virtue. On International Women's Day , the Saudi feminist activist Wajeha al-Huwaider posted a YouTube video of herself driving in a rural area where it is tolerated , and requesting a universal right for women to drive.

And I hope that every woman that remains fighting for her rights receives them soon. Skepticism was very common about possible change in Saudi Arabia's deeply religious and patriarchal society, where many believed that allowing women the right to drive could lead to Western-style openness and an erosion of traditional values.

In September , a woman from Jeddah was sentenced to ten lashes by whip for driving a car. Previously when women were found driving they would normally be questioned and let go after they signed a pledge not to drive again.

Women are generally discouraged from using public transport. It is technically forbidden, but unenforced, for women to take taxis or hire private drivers, as it results in khalwa illegal mixing with a non- mahram man.

Where it is allowed, they must use a separate entrance and sit in a back section reserved for women; [] however, the bus companies with the widest coverage in Riyadh and Jeddah do not allow women at all.

In early , the government began considering a proposal to create a nationwide women-only bus system.

Activists are divided on the proposal; whereas some say it will reduce sexual harassment and transportation expenses, while facilitating women entering the workforce, others criticize it as an escape from the real issue of recognizing women's right to drive.

Starting in , ride-hailing company Careem started business in Saudi Arabia, with Uber arriving in the country in Women account for four-fifths of passengers for these ride-hailing companies.

The Saudi government has also supported these initiatives as a means of reducing unemployment and in its Vision initiative, has invested equity in both companies.

Ride-hailing has improved mobility for women and also promoted employment participation among them with its improved transport flexibility.

Saudi Arabia is a monarchy, with a Consultative Assembly shura of lawmakers appointed by the king.

Prior to a September announcement by King Abdullah only men 30 years of age and older could serve as lawmakers. According to his September announcement, women can now be appointed to the Consultative Assembly.

In three women were named as deputy chairpersons of three committees. Women could not vote or run for office in the country's first municipal elections in many decades, in , nor in They campaigned for the right to do so in the municipal elections, attempting unsuccessfully to register as voters.

Women are allowed to hold position on boards of chambers of commerce. In , two women were elected to the board of the Jeddah Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

There is one woman in a cabinet-level position as deputy minister for women's education who was appointed in February In court, the testimony of one man equals that of two women.

Female parties to court proceedings generally must deputize male relatives to speak on their behalf. At age 1, Saudi men are issued identity cards they were required to carry at all times.

Before the 21st century, women were not issued cards, but were named as dependents on their mahram's usually their father or husband ID card, so that "strictly speaking" they were not allowed in public without their mahram.

Proving their identity in the court system was also a challenge for Saudi women, since in addition to ID cards, they could not own passports or driver's licenses.

Women had to produce two male relations to confirm their identity. If a man denied that the woman in court was his mother or sister, "the man's word would normally be taken," making a woman vulnerable to things like false claims to her property and violation of her rights to inheritance if she fell out of favor with her family.

The Ulema , Saudi's religious authorities, opposed the idea of issuing separate identity cards for women. Many other conservative Saudi citizens argue that cards, which show a woman's unveiled face, violate purdah and Saudi custom.

In , a small number of ID cards were issued for women who had the permission of their mahram. The cards were issued to the mahram, not the women, and explained by the government as a way to fight forgery and fraud.

In , women were allowed to enter hotels and furnished apartments without their mahram if they had their national identification cards.

Women do not need male permission to apply for the card, but do need it to travel abroad. In , the country's religious authority banned the practice of forced marriage.

However, the marriage contract is officially between the husband-to-be and the father of the bride-to-be. Neither a man nor a woman can marry a non-Saudi citizen without official permission.

Polygamy is legal in Saudi Arabia however it is believed to be in decline, especially in young people. The Kingdom prevents Saudi women from marrying expatriate men who test positive for drugs including alcohol , incurable STD's , or genetic diseases, but does not stop Saudi men from marrying expatriate women with such problems.

Domestic abuse in Saudi Arabia started to receive public attention in after a popular television presenter, Rania al-Baz , was severely beaten by her husband, and photographs of her "bruised and swollen face" were published in the press.

Violence against women and children in the home was traditionally not seen as a criminal matter in Saudi Arabia until That year the Prime Minister also ordered the government to draft a national strategy to deal with domestic violence.

In August , the Saudi cabinet approved a law making domestic violence a criminal offense for the first time.

The law criminalizes psychological and sexual abuse , as well as physical abuse. It also includes a provision obliging employees to report instances of abuse in the workplace to their employer.

The new laws were welcomed by Saudi women's rights activists, although some expressed concerns that the law could not be implemented successfully without new training for the judiciary, and that the tradition of male guardianship would remain an obstacle to prosecutions.

There are no laws defining the minimum age for marriage in Saudi Arabia. Most religious authorities have justified the marriage of girls as young as nine and boys as young as fifteen.

It also negatively affects their health as they are at greater risk of dying from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth.

A news report documented the case of Shareefa, an abandoned child-bride. Shareefa was married to an year-old man when she was The deal was arranged by the girl's father in exchange for money, against the wishes of her mother.

Her husband divorced her a few months after the marriage without her knowledge, and abandoned her at the age of The mother is attempting legal action, arguing that "Shareefa is now 21, she has lost more than 10 years of her life, her chance for an education, a decent marriage and normal life.

Who is going to take responsibility for what she has gone through? The government's Saudi Human Rights Commission condemned child marriage in , calling it "a clear violation against children and their psychological, moral and physical rights.

Female genital cutting is reported as rare, possibly occurring among minorities such as African immigrants. In the Directorate General of Passports allowed Saudi women married to foreigners to sponsor their children, so that the children can have residency permits iqamas with their mothers named as the sponsors.

Iqamas also grant children the right to work in the private sector in Saudi Arabia while on the sponsorship of their mothers, and allow mothers to bring their children living abroad back to Saudi Arabia if they have no criminal records.

Foreign men married to Saudi women were also granted the right to work in the private sector while on the sponsorship of their wives on condition that the title on their iqamas should be written as "husband of a Saudi wife" and that they should have valid passports enabling them to return to their homes at any time.

Legally, children belong to their father, who has sole guardianship. If a divorce takes place, women may be granted custody of their young children until they reach the age of seven.

Older children are often awarded to the father or the paternal grandparents. Women cannot confer citizenship to children born to a non-Saudi Arabian father.

The inheritance share of women in Saudi is generally smaller than that to which men are entitled. The Quran states that daughters should inherit half as much as sons.

Marrying outside the tribe is also grounds for limiting women's inheritance. Under Sharia law, generally enforced by the government, the courts will punish a rapist with anything from flogging to execution.

As there is no penal code in Saudi Arabia, there is no written law which specifically criminalizes rape or prescribes its punishment. The rape victim is often punished as well, if she had first entered the rapist's company in violation of purdah.

There is no prohibition against spousal or statutory rape. Migrant women, often working as domestic helpers, represent a particularly vulnerable group and their living conditions are sometimes slave-like and include physical oppression and rape.

Miller claimed human trafficking is a problem everywhere, but Saudi Arabia's many foreign domestic workers and loopholes in the system cause many to fall victim to abuse and torture.

Women, as well as men, may be subject to harassment by the country's religious police, the mutaween, in some cases including arbitrary arrest and physical punishments.

In some cases, victims of sexual assault are punished for khalwa, being alone with an unrelated male, prior to the assault. In the Qatif rape case , an year-old victim of kidnapping and gang rape was sentenced by a Saudi court to six months in prison and 90 lashes.

The judge ruled she violated laws on segregation of the sexes, as she was in an unrelated man's car at the time of the attack.

She was also punished for trying to influence the court through the media. According to Human Rights Watch, one of the rapists filmed the assault with his mobile phone but the judges refused to allow it as evidence.

The United Nations criticized social attitudes and the system of male guardianship, which deter women from reporting crimes. The UN report argued that women are prevented from escaping abusive environments because of their lack of legal and economic independence.

They are further oppressed, according to the UN, by practices surrounding divorce and child custody, the absence of a law criminalizing violence against women, and inconsistencies in the application of laws and procedures.

The case prompted Egyptian-American journalist Mona Eltahawy to comment "What kind of God would punish a woman for rape?

That is a question that Muslims must ask of Saudi Arabia because unless we challenge the determinedly anti-women teachings of Islam in Saudi Arabia, that kingdom will always get a free pass.

In , the Saudi Gazette reported that a year-old unmarried woman was sentenced to one year in prison and lashes for adultery.

She had been gang-raped, become pregnant, and tried unsuccessfully to abort the fetus. The flogging was postponed until after the delivery.

Trends in the enforcement of Islamic code have influenced women's rights in Saudi Arabia. The Iranian Revolution in and 11 September attacks in had significant influence on Saudi cultural history and women's rights.

In , the Islamic Revolution in Iran led to a resurgence of fundamentalism in many parts of the Islamic world. Fundamentalists sought to repel Westernization, and governments sought to defend themselves against revolution.

In Saudi Arabia, fundamentalists occupied the Grand Mosque Masjid al-Haram and demanded a more conservative Islamic state, including "an end of education of women.

Newspapers were discouraged from publishing images of women; the Interior Ministry discouraged women from employment, including expatriates.

Scholarships for women to study abroad were declined. Wearing the abaya in public became mandatory.

In contrast, the 11 September attacks against the United States precipitated a reaction against ultra-conservative Islamic sentiment; fifteen of the nineteen hijackers in the September 11 attacks came from Saudi Arabia.

Since then, the mutaween have become less active, and reformists have been appointed to key government posts.

The government says it has withdrawn support from schools deemed extremist, and moderated school textbooks. The government under King Abdullah was regarded as moderately progressive.

It opened the country's first co-educational university, appointed the first female cabinet member, and prohibited domestic violence. Gender segregation was relaxed, but remained the norm.

Critics described the reform as far too slow, and often more symbolic than substantive. Conservative clerics have successfully rebuffed attempts to outlaw child marriage.

Women were not allowed to vote in the country's first municipal elections, although Abdullah supported a woman's right to drive and vote.

The few female government officials have had minimal power. Norah Al-Faiz, the first female cabinet member, will not appear without her veil, appear on television without permission, or talk to male colleagues except by videoconferencing.

She opposes girls' school sports as premature. The government has made international commitments to women's rights.

It ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women , with the proviso that the convention could not override Islamic law.

However, government officials told the United Nations that there is no contradiction with Islam. The degree of compliance between government commitments and practice is disputed.

A report by the UN questioned whether any international law ratified by the government has ever been applied inside Saudi Arabia.

Some of the female advisors appointed around — to parliament shurah stated that slow reform is effective. Nora Alyousif, "The Saudi leadership is working hard on reform and supporting women Seventy years ago we were completely isolated from the world.

The changes which are taking place are unmistakable, and we have finally started opening up. Maha Almuneef said, "There are small steps now.

There are giant steps coming. But most Saudis have been taught the traditional ways. You can't just change the social order all at once.

Local and international women's groups have pushed Saudi governments for reform, taking advantage of the fact that some rulers are eager to project a more progressive image to the West.

The presence of powerful businesswomen—still a rare breed—in some of these groups helped to increase women's representation in Saudi Arabian government and society.

She was the first woman to address a mixed-gender business audience in Saudi Arabia, speaking at the Jeddah Economic Forum in She used the occasion to advocate for economic equality: My vision is of a country with a prosperous and diversified economy in which any Saudi citizen, irrespective of gender who is serious about finding employment, can find a job in the field for which he or she is best qualified, leading to a thriving middle class and in which all Saudi citizens, residents or visitors to the country feel safe and can live in an atmosphere where mutual respect and tolerance exist among all, regardless of their social class, religion or gender.

saudi frauen arabien in -

Es gibt doch noch positive Entwicklungen in der Welt - you made my day! Frauen war das Lenken von Kraftfahrzeugen bis Juni untersagt, [39] im Oktober hatte König Abdullah noch bestätigt, dass sich daran in nächster Zeit nichts ändern werde. Weitere Reformen zugunsten der Frauen sind nicht geplant. Die Ulema legitimierten ein Vorgehen gegen die Besetzer. Die Behörde untersteht dem Innenministerium; ihr Aufbau ist noch nicht abgeschlossen. Frauen können sich vor Gericht von der ihnen auferlegten Zwangs-Vormundschaft entbinden lassen, müssen dafür aber nachweisen können, dass der Vormund sie misshandelt, vergewaltigt, gequält hat oder zwingt, Dinge zu tun, die nicht mit dem Islam vereinbar sind z. Weiterhin bestehen strenge Kleidungs- und Verhaltensvorschriften, die nach dem konservativen wahhabitischen Islamverständnis ausgelegt werden. Einheimische Frauen unterliegen in der Regel einer gesetzlichen männlichen Vormundschaft. Die Bürger sollen so vor allem gegen Einflüsse durch Inhalte, die die religiösen oder gesellschaftlichen Normen der Regierung verletzen, geschützt werden. Es geht also nicht zuletzt um volkswirtschaftliche Interessen. Die Bürger sollen so vor allem gegen Einflüsse durch Inhalte, die die religiösen oder gesellschaftlichen Normen der Regierung verletzen, geschützt werden. Sind Sie bei Facebook? Es besteht eine neunjährige Schulpflicht für beide Geschlechter. In diesem Zusammenhang Beste Spielothek in Grosselfingen finden mehrere Personen festgenommen. Die Gruppe hatte im Jahr zu einer Demonstration in Saudi-Arabien aufgerufen, Beste Spielothek in Hoya an Weser finden der von der saudischen Polizei über Verhaftungen wie lange geht die em 2019 wurden. Die strikte Geschlechtertrennung in den Schulen ist gleichzeitig die Grundbedingung der sexuellen Aufklärung im Schulunterricht, seit kurzem werden ebenfalls Themen unterrichtet, die Beste Spielothek in Olsdorf finden sozialen Kontakt und Umgang mit dem anderen Geschlecht erläutern. Inzwischen ist es zwar Pflicht, dass jede Frau einen Personal- bzw. Vom Nutzer eingesetzte Digital Rights Managementsysteme dürfen nicht angewendet werden. Startseite Ausland Saudische Frauen: Die Verurteilten, ihre Fc goa und Angehörigen erfahren den Hinrichtungstermin oft nicht. Vergehen werden meist mit körperlicher Züchtigung oder Gefängnis bestraft. Doch der enorme Überhang von jungen Menschen führt auch zu Problemen im Bildungssektor wie auf dem Arbeitsmarkt [62]. Die Verurteilten, ihre Anwälte und Angehörigen erfahren bitcoin einzahlen Hinrichtungstermin oft nicht. Das öffentliche Praktizieren anderer Religionen als des sunnitischen Islam ist in Saudi-Arabien verboten, daher ist auch die Religionsfreiheit der Schiiten beschränkt, sie dürfen Bräuche, die mit dem sunnitischen Islam nicht vereinbar sind, z. Die Bürger sollen so vor allem gegen Einflüsse durch Inhalte, die die religiösen oder gesellschaftlichen Normen der Regierung verletzen, geschützt werden. Es sind einzigartige Parship gutschein aus Saudi-Arabien: Der Jahresbericht der Organisation Amnesty International [9] listet unter anderem wettschein tipps folgenden Tatbestände auf:. PhilippinenKenia inhaftiert und manchmal auch hingerichtet werden. Einheimische Frauen unterliegen in der Regel einer gesetzlichen männlichen Vormundschaft.

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Ein Kontakt zur Familie und zu einem Rechtsbeistand wird den Gefangenen häufig verwehrt. Legen Sie Ihr persönliches Archiv an. Trotzdem gibt es in Saudi-Arabien vier nennenswerte Parteien, die im Untergrund arbeiten und strafrechtlich verfolgt werden:. Was Frauen dort dürfen und was nicht. Frauen können sich vor Gericht von der ihnen auferlegten Zwangs-Vormundschaft entbinden lassen, müssen dafür aber nachweisen können, dass der Vormund sie misshandelt, vergewaltigt, gequält hat oder zwingt, Dinge zu tun, die nicht mit dem Islam vereinbar sind z. Western critics often compare the situation of Saudi women to a system of apartheidanalogous to South Africa's treatment of non-whites during South Africa's apartheid era. Retrieved 25 January online casino spiele ohne einzahlung And there is also [the need to] prevent girls' circumcision Trends in the enforcement of Islamic code have influenced women's rights in Saudi Arabia. If a man denied that the woman in video slot kostenlos was his mother or sister, "the man's word would normally be taken," making a woman vulnerable to things like false claims to her property and violation of her rights uefa europa league 2019-19 inheritance if she fell out of favor with her family. Saudi Arabia opened some non-combat military jobs to women sami hyypia February According prism casino bonus codes the Encyclopedia of Human Rightssizzling hot spot game download "key" notions in Islamic legal theory that rockstar casino mobilized to curtail women's rights in Saudi are:. Saudis were early adopters of Bluetooth technology, as men and women use it to communicate secretly. Archived from the original on 18 August Auch die Bewegungsfreiheit von ausländischen Gästen wird meist durch Eintragungen in das Ausweispapier stark eingeschränkt. Die saudischen Behörden wollen verhindern, dass die neue Freiheit für Autofahrerinnen als Signal einer weitergehenden Liberalisierung verstanden wird. Immerhin sollen es gut fünf Millionen potenzielle Käuferinnen sein. Insbesondere ist es nicht gestattet, das überlassene Programmangebot durch Werbung zu unterbrechen oder sonstige online-typische Werbeformen zu verwenden, etwa durch Pre-Roll- oder Post-Roll-Darstellungen, Splitscreen oder Overlay. Im Jahr fuhren 47 Aktivistinnen trotz Verbots demonstrativ in einem Konvoi durch die Hauptstadt Riad — und wurden prompt festgenommen. Hamadi Hindi ist die erste Pilotin in Saudi-Arabien. Doch während die Männer fast alle kurzärmlig herumlaufen, sind die meisten Frauen gesichtslose Schatten, verborgen hinter schwarzen Schleiern. Dabei geht es nicht nur die Möglichkeit für Frauen an ihre Arbeitsstelle zu kommen, in einem Land, in dem die wichtigsten modernen Verkehrsmittel — wie die Metro in der Hauptstadt Riad, noch im Bau sind. Dass ihre jungen Schüler sie als Lehrerin akzeptieren, verbucht sie immerhin als Fortschritt: Sie selbst hatte das Glück, schon als Kind an einer Privatschule den Kampfsport für sich zu entdecken. Die saudische Regierung stuft ihn und seine Gruppe, genauso wie die mit der saudischen Regierung verbündete US-Regierung , als terroristisch ein und verweigert daher jegliche Verhandlung. Jahrhunderts und zu Beginn des

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Activists are divided on the proposal; whereas some say it will reduce sexual harassment and transportation expenses, while facilitating women entering the workforce, others criticize it as an escape from the real issue of recognizing women's right to drive.

Starting in , ride-hailing company Careem started business in Saudi Arabia, with Uber arriving in the country in Women account for four-fifths of passengers for these ride-hailing companies.

The Saudi government has also supported these initiatives as a means of reducing unemployment and in its Vision initiative, has invested equity in both companies.

Ride-hailing has improved mobility for women and also promoted employment participation among them with its improved transport flexibility.

Saudi Arabia is a monarchy, with a Consultative Assembly shura of lawmakers appointed by the king. Prior to a September announcement by King Abdullah only men 30 years of age and older could serve as lawmakers.

According to his September announcement, women can now be appointed to the Consultative Assembly. In three women were named as deputy chairpersons of three committees.

Women could not vote or run for office in the country's first municipal elections in many decades, in , nor in They campaigned for the right to do so in the municipal elections, attempting unsuccessfully to register as voters.

Women are allowed to hold position on boards of chambers of commerce. In , two women were elected to the board of the Jeddah Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

There is one woman in a cabinet-level position as deputy minister for women's education who was appointed in February In court, the testimony of one man equals that of two women.

Female parties to court proceedings generally must deputize male relatives to speak on their behalf.

At age 1, Saudi men are issued identity cards they were required to carry at all times. Before the 21st century, women were not issued cards, but were named as dependents on their mahram's usually their father or husband ID card, so that "strictly speaking" they were not allowed in public without their mahram.

Proving their identity in the court system was also a challenge for Saudi women, since in addition to ID cards, they could not own passports or driver's licenses.

Women had to produce two male relations to confirm their identity. If a man denied that the woman in court was his mother or sister, "the man's word would normally be taken," making a woman vulnerable to things like false claims to her property and violation of her rights to inheritance if she fell out of favor with her family.

The Ulema , Saudi's religious authorities, opposed the idea of issuing separate identity cards for women.

Many other conservative Saudi citizens argue that cards, which show a woman's unveiled face, violate purdah and Saudi custom.

In , a small number of ID cards were issued for women who had the permission of their mahram. The cards were issued to the mahram, not the women, and explained by the government as a way to fight forgery and fraud.

In , women were allowed to enter hotels and furnished apartments without their mahram if they had their national identification cards.

Women do not need male permission to apply for the card, but do need it to travel abroad. In , the country's religious authority banned the practice of forced marriage.

However, the marriage contract is officially between the husband-to-be and the father of the bride-to-be. Neither a man nor a woman can marry a non-Saudi citizen without official permission.

Polygamy is legal in Saudi Arabia however it is believed to be in decline, especially in young people. The Kingdom prevents Saudi women from marrying expatriate men who test positive for drugs including alcohol , incurable STD's , or genetic diseases, but does not stop Saudi men from marrying expatriate women with such problems.

Domestic abuse in Saudi Arabia started to receive public attention in after a popular television presenter, Rania al-Baz , was severely beaten by her husband, and photographs of her "bruised and swollen face" were published in the press.

Violence against women and children in the home was traditionally not seen as a criminal matter in Saudi Arabia until That year the Prime Minister also ordered the government to draft a national strategy to deal with domestic violence.

In August , the Saudi cabinet approved a law making domestic violence a criminal offense for the first time. The law criminalizes psychological and sexual abuse , as well as physical abuse.

It also includes a provision obliging employees to report instances of abuse in the workplace to their employer. The new laws were welcomed by Saudi women's rights activists, although some expressed concerns that the law could not be implemented successfully without new training for the judiciary, and that the tradition of male guardianship would remain an obstacle to prosecutions.

There are no laws defining the minimum age for marriage in Saudi Arabia. Most religious authorities have justified the marriage of girls as young as nine and boys as young as fifteen.

It also negatively affects their health as they are at greater risk of dying from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth.

A news report documented the case of Shareefa, an abandoned child-bride. Shareefa was married to an year-old man when she was The deal was arranged by the girl's father in exchange for money, against the wishes of her mother.

Her husband divorced her a few months after the marriage without her knowledge, and abandoned her at the age of The mother is attempting legal action, arguing that "Shareefa is now 21, she has lost more than 10 years of her life, her chance for an education, a decent marriage and normal life.

Who is going to take responsibility for what she has gone through? The government's Saudi Human Rights Commission condemned child marriage in , calling it "a clear violation against children and their psychological, moral and physical rights.

Female genital cutting is reported as rare, possibly occurring among minorities such as African immigrants. In the Directorate General of Passports allowed Saudi women married to foreigners to sponsor their children, so that the children can have residency permits iqamas with their mothers named as the sponsors.

Iqamas also grant children the right to work in the private sector in Saudi Arabia while on the sponsorship of their mothers, and allow mothers to bring their children living abroad back to Saudi Arabia if they have no criminal records.

Foreign men married to Saudi women were also granted the right to work in the private sector while on the sponsorship of their wives on condition that the title on their iqamas should be written as "husband of a Saudi wife" and that they should have valid passports enabling them to return to their homes at any time.

Legally, children belong to their father, who has sole guardianship. If a divorce takes place, women may be granted custody of their young children until they reach the age of seven.

Older children are often awarded to the father or the paternal grandparents. Women cannot confer citizenship to children born to a non-Saudi Arabian father.

The inheritance share of women in Saudi is generally smaller than that to which men are entitled. The Quran states that daughters should inherit half as much as sons.

Marrying outside the tribe is also grounds for limiting women's inheritance. Under Sharia law, generally enforced by the government, the courts will punish a rapist with anything from flogging to execution.

As there is no penal code in Saudi Arabia, there is no written law which specifically criminalizes rape or prescribes its punishment. The rape victim is often punished as well, if she had first entered the rapist's company in violation of purdah.

There is no prohibition against spousal or statutory rape. Migrant women, often working as domestic helpers, represent a particularly vulnerable group and their living conditions are sometimes slave-like and include physical oppression and rape.

Miller claimed human trafficking is a problem everywhere, but Saudi Arabia's many foreign domestic workers and loopholes in the system cause many to fall victim to abuse and torture.

Women, as well as men, may be subject to harassment by the country's religious police, the mutaween, in some cases including arbitrary arrest and physical punishments.

In some cases, victims of sexual assault are punished for khalwa, being alone with an unrelated male, prior to the assault. In the Qatif rape case , an year-old victim of kidnapping and gang rape was sentenced by a Saudi court to six months in prison and 90 lashes.

The judge ruled she violated laws on segregation of the sexes, as she was in an unrelated man's car at the time of the attack.

She was also punished for trying to influence the court through the media. According to Human Rights Watch, one of the rapists filmed the assault with his mobile phone but the judges refused to allow it as evidence.

The United Nations criticized social attitudes and the system of male guardianship, which deter women from reporting crimes.

The UN report argued that women are prevented from escaping abusive environments because of their lack of legal and economic independence.

They are further oppressed, according to the UN, by practices surrounding divorce and child custody, the absence of a law criminalizing violence against women, and inconsistencies in the application of laws and procedures.

The case prompted Egyptian-American journalist Mona Eltahawy to comment "What kind of God would punish a woman for rape?

That is a question that Muslims must ask of Saudi Arabia because unless we challenge the determinedly anti-women teachings of Islam in Saudi Arabia, that kingdom will always get a free pass.

In , the Saudi Gazette reported that a year-old unmarried woman was sentenced to one year in prison and lashes for adultery. She had been gang-raped, become pregnant, and tried unsuccessfully to abort the fetus.

The flogging was postponed until after the delivery. Trends in the enforcement of Islamic code have influenced women's rights in Saudi Arabia.

The Iranian Revolution in and 11 September attacks in had significant influence on Saudi cultural history and women's rights. In , the Islamic Revolution in Iran led to a resurgence of fundamentalism in many parts of the Islamic world.

Fundamentalists sought to repel Westernization, and governments sought to defend themselves against revolution.

In Saudi Arabia, fundamentalists occupied the Grand Mosque Masjid al-Haram and demanded a more conservative Islamic state, including "an end of education of women.

Newspapers were discouraged from publishing images of women; the Interior Ministry discouraged women from employment, including expatriates.

Scholarships for women to study abroad were declined. Wearing the abaya in public became mandatory. In contrast, the 11 September attacks against the United States precipitated a reaction against ultra-conservative Islamic sentiment; fifteen of the nineteen hijackers in the September 11 attacks came from Saudi Arabia.

Since then, the mutaween have become less active, and reformists have been appointed to key government posts.

The government says it has withdrawn support from schools deemed extremist, and moderated school textbooks. The government under King Abdullah was regarded as moderately progressive.

It opened the country's first co-educational university, appointed the first female cabinet member, and prohibited domestic violence.

Gender segregation was relaxed, but remained the norm. Critics described the reform as far too slow, and often more symbolic than substantive.

Conservative clerics have successfully rebuffed attempts to outlaw child marriage. Women were not allowed to vote in the country's first municipal elections, although Abdullah supported a woman's right to drive and vote.

The few female government officials have had minimal power. Norah Al-Faiz, the first female cabinet member, will not appear without her veil, appear on television without permission, or talk to male colleagues except by videoconferencing.

She opposes girls' school sports as premature. The government has made international commitments to women's rights. It ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women , with the proviso that the convention could not override Islamic law.

However, government officials told the United Nations that there is no contradiction with Islam. The degree of compliance between government commitments and practice is disputed.

A report by the UN questioned whether any international law ratified by the government has ever been applied inside Saudi Arabia. Some of the female advisors appointed around — to parliament shurah stated that slow reform is effective.

Nora Alyousif, "The Saudi leadership is working hard on reform and supporting women Seventy years ago we were completely isolated from the world.

The changes which are taking place are unmistakable, and we have finally started opening up. Maha Almuneef said, "There are small steps now.

There are giant steps coming. But most Saudis have been taught the traditional ways. You can't just change the social order all at once.

Local and international women's groups have pushed Saudi governments for reform, taking advantage of the fact that some rulers are eager to project a more progressive image to the West.

The presence of powerful businesswomen—still a rare breed—in some of these groups helped to increase women's representation in Saudi Arabian government and society.

She was the first woman to address a mixed-gender business audience in Saudi Arabia, speaking at the Jeddah Economic Forum in She used the occasion to advocate for economic equality: My vision is of a country with a prosperous and diversified economy in which any Saudi citizen, irrespective of gender who is serious about finding employment, can find a job in the field for which he or she is best qualified, leading to a thriving middle class and in which all Saudi citizens, residents or visitors to the country feel safe and can live in an atmosphere where mutual respect and tolerance exist among all, regardless of their social class, religion or gender.

Forbes and Time magazines have named Lubna Olayan one of the world's most influential women. It is highly punishable.

Mixing of men and women is a reason for greater decadence and adultery. Wajeha al-Huwaider is often described as the most radical and prominent feminist activist in Saudi Arabia.

She described the goals of the organization: Among the issues that have been raised, and that are of the utmost importance, are: We need laws to protect women from these aggressions and violations of their rights as human beings.

And there is also [the need to] prevent girls' circumcision We truly have a great need for a Ministry of Women's Affairs to deal with women's rights, issues of motherhood and infancy, and women's health in rural areas This is our ultimate goal In Saudi Arabia registered its first female trainee lawyer, Arwa al-Hujaili, [] who is also the first Saudi woman to attain an aircraft dispatcher license.

Sameera Aziz is the first Saudi media personality who aimed to make a Bollywood film after opening her production house in Bollywood. Her goal was to make and direct her Bollywood movie Reem The True Story to showcase the twenty-first century Saudi lifestyle and Saudi women to the world.

She was highly appreciated by progressive Saudi minds and known as the first Saudi director in Bollywood. Saudis frequently debate how to bring about change.

Those who oppose activists like Wajeha al-Huwaider fear that an all-or-nothing approach to women's rights will spur a backlash against any change.

If one wonders why great numbers of Saudi women don't join al-Huwaider it's because they are asked to defy Islam.

Al-Huwaider's all-or-nothing position undercuts her credibility. Retaliation against women's rights activism has some precedent. Immediately following Operation Desert Storm in , Saudi women launched a campaign for more rights.

Forty-seven women drove illegally through Riyadh, in protest against the ban on driving. Activists presented a petition to King Fahd requesting "basic legal and social rights.

Fundamentalists demanded strict punishment of the women who had driven in protest, and denounced activists as "whores. Arguments in favour of slow change include those of history professor Hatoon al-Fassi.

Al-Fassi says recent campaigns for women's rights have opened up public discourse on topics such as child marriage and rape. But we are proud to say that something is going on in Saudi Arabia.

We are not really free, but it is possible for women to express themselves as never before. You can't begin to imagine the impact that the ban on mixing has on our lives and what lifting this ban would mean.

Arguments in favour of faster change and more activism include those of Sumayya Jabarti, editor of the Arab News.

Jabarti says there are too many women with decision-making power who are like "queen bees," doing nothing to question the status quo.

People say 'change,' but it is all relative and it is very, very limited Change is not coming, we are taking it I don't think the way is paved. I think we are building it through the route taken Most of the time, we are walking in place.

In —, Saudi women opposed mixed workplaces and women driving, [36] and a majority of women did not think women should hold political office.

Conservative cleric Mohsen al-Awajy says the country must resist secularization: They can do nothing without Islam. There is no Saudi Arabia without Islam.

Princess Loulwa Al-Faisal describes herself as a conservative, advocating change that is gradual and consistent with Islam.

A member of the royal family , she argues that Islam sees women's rights as equal but different, which "Together, add up to a secure society that works.

We are preserving it There are problems mostly with the way the law is interpreted, mostly in the courts, but those are changing.

For several decades, non-Saudi women suffered job discrimination because there was a popular belief that organizations and corporations were not allowed to hire non-Saudi women.

She argued that this was discrimination and that it would be in the interest of Saudi industry to employ non-Saudi women to fill personnel gaps.

In the Saudi government sanctioned sports for girls in private schools for the first time. A royal decree passed in May gave women access to government services such as education and healthcare without the need for the consent of a male guardian.

The order also stated that it should only be allowed if it does not contradict the Sharia system. Gender segregation has produced great enthusiasm for innovative communications technology, especially when it is anonymous.

Saudis were early adopters of Bluetooth technology, as men and women use it to communicate secretly.

Saudi women use online social networking as a way to share ideas they cannot share publicly. As one woman put it:. In Saudi Arabia, we live more of a virtual life than a real life.

I know people who are involved in on-line romances with people they have never met in real life And many of us use Facebook for other things, like talking about human rights and women's rights.

We can protest on Facebook about the jailing of a blogger which is something we couldn't do on the streets. Some conservative clerics called for Facebook to be banned because it causes gender mingling.

One cleric called it a "door to lust" and cause of "social strife. An internet radio station that is promoting women's rights from abroad, announced via Twitter that it would broadcast on a weekly basis.

Western critics often compare the situation of Saudi women to a system of apartheid , analogous to South Africa's treatment of non-whites during South Africa's apartheid era.

As evidence, they cite restrictions on travel, fields of study, choice of profession, access to the courts, and political speech. Some commentators have argued that Saudi gender policies constitute a crime against humanity , and warrant intervention from the international community.

They criticize the U. Mary Kaldor views gender apartheid in Saudi Arabia as similar to that enforced by the Taliban in Afghanistan.

Critics also blame Western corporations that cooperate in enforcing segregation. American chains such as Starbucks and Pizza Hut maintain separate eating areas; the men's areas are typically high-quality, whereas the women's are rundown or lack seats.

In a column, Washington Post editor Colbert I. As with Saudi Arabia, white-ruled South Africa viewed external criticism as a violation of its sovereignty and interference with its internal affairs.

King wonders why there is nothing like the Sullivan Principles for gender-based discrimination. She questions why American civil rights leaders like Jesse Jackson were active in protesting South Africa's racial apartheid, but American feminists rarely venture beyond reproductive rights when discussing international politics: Cultural relativism is the root of activist inaction, according to feminists such as Azar Majedi , Pamela Bone, and Maryam Namazie.

They argue that political Islam is misogynist , and the desire of Western liberals to tolerate Islam blinds them to women's rights violations.

Majedi and Namazie, both born in Iran, consider cultural relativism racist: We are no better than they are. We should not impose our values on them.

We can criticise only our own. The problem with this mindset is that, with all its faults, Western culture is clearly, objectively, better. The family is the kernel of Saudi society, and its members shall be brought up on the basis of the Islamic faith, and loyalty and obedience to Allah, His Messenger, and to guardians; respect for and implementation of the law, and love of and pride in the homeland and its glorious history as the Islamic faith stipulates.

The state will aspire to strengthen family ties, maintain its Arab and Islamic values and care for all its members, and to provide the right conditions for the growth of their resources and capabilities.

Mayer argues that Articles 9 and 10 deny women "any opportunity to participate in public law or government. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. First Second Third Fourth. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books.

King and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh. Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice.

Wali Islamic legal guardian and Anti male-guardianship campaign. Sex segregation and Islam and Sex segregation.

Women's education in Saudi Arabia. Women's sport in Saudi Arabia. Women to drive movement. Domestic violence in Saudi Arabia.

Rape in Saudi Arabia. Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 25 February United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 14 December Cultural Homogeneity and Values". US Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 26 August Bei Besuchen von Botschaftsangehörigen ist es den Gefangenen in der Regel untersagt, über ihre Behandlung in der Haft oder über ihren Fall zu sprechen.

Dezember festgenommen und bis zum April ohne Anklage festgehalten. Im Februar durfte die Tageszeitung Shams sechs Wochen lang nicht erscheinen.

Auch in dem Karikaturenstreit , der durch eine dänische Zeitung ausgelöst wurde, kritisierte die Ulema in Saudi-Arabien die westliche Pressefreiheit wiederholt.

Das Internet wird durch die staatliche Internet Service Unit effektiv gefiltert. Die Bürger sollen so vor allem gegen Einflüsse durch Inhalte, die die religiösen oder gesellschaftlichen Normen der Regierung verletzen, geschützt werden.

So werden beispielsweise westliche Berichterstattung von unabhängigen Medien religions- und regierungskritische Berichte , Pornografie und Seiten von Menschenrechtsorganisationen blockiert.

Er wurde nach acht Tagen ohne Anklageerhebung wieder freigelassen. Das öffentliche Praktizieren anderer Religionen als des sunnitischen Islam ist in Saudi-Arabien verboten, daher ist auch die Religionsfreiheit der Schiiten beschränkt, sie dürfen Bräuche, die mit dem sunnitischen Islam nicht vereinbar sind, z.

Die Schiiten werden von den religiösen Autoritäten nicht als Muslime anerkannt. Sie dürfen Moscheen betreiben, diese werden jedoch offiziell nicht als Moscheen angesehen.

Auch für Gastarbeiter und Diplomaten ist es bei Strafe verboten, einen nicht-sunnitischen Gottesdienst zu feiern, eine Taufe oder eine Krankensalbung zu empfangen.

Kirchen , Synagogen oder andere nicht-sunnitische Gebetshäuser gibt es nicht und die Errichtung dieser Gebäude ist verboten. Staatsangehörige westlicher Verbündeter z.

Philippinen , Kenia inhaftiert und manchmal auch hingerichtet werden. Dies betrifft insbesondere die Zugehörigkeit zur nachislamischen Weltreligion der Bahai.

In Saudi-Arabien wird die Gewissensfreiheit unter anderem durch polarisierende Schulbücher verletzt. Die Lehrbücher, die für den Islam-Unterricht genutzt werden, verbreiten eine Ideologie, die sich hasserfüllt gegen alle richtet, die sich nicht zum islamischen Wahhabitentum bekennen.

September mit Vorbehalten gegen Art. Inzwischen ist es zwar Pflicht, dass jede Frau einen Personal- bzw.

Reiseausweis besitzt, aber eine Frau darf das Land ohne Genehmigung durch ihren Vormund nicht verlassen.

Einheimische Frauen unterliegen in der Regel einer gesetzlichen männlichen Vormundschaft. Ab der Ehe ist der Ehemann der Vormund. Seit dürfen Frauen ihre Firmen selbst führen d.

Frauen können sich vor Gericht von der ihnen auferlegten Zwangs-Vormundschaft entbinden lassen, müssen dafür aber nachweisen können, dass der Vormund sie misshandelt, vergewaltigt, gequält hat oder zwingt, Dinge zu tun, die nicht mit dem Islam vereinbar sind z.

Prostitution oder analer Geschlechtsverkehr. Frauen war das Lenken von Kraftfahrzeugen bis Juni untersagt, [39] im Oktober hatte König Abdullah noch bestätigt, dass sich daran in nächster Zeit nichts ändern werde.

Der König selber unterstützte zwar die Aufhebung des Fahrverbotes, machte diese jedoch von der Zustimmung der Allgemeinheit abhängig.

Inzwischen ist im Bildungssektor die Liberalisierung so weit vorangeschritten, dass die Mehrheit der Studenten Frauen sind.

Sie müssen die Vorlesungen von männlichen Dozenten am Bildschirm verfolgen, da in der Universität wie im gesamten öffentlichen Raum der Grundsatz gilt, dass Frauen keinerlei persönlichen Kontakt zu nichtverwandten Männern und Männer keinerlei persönlichen Kontakt zu nichtverwandten Frauen haben dürfen.

Deswegen sind im Königreich oft Bereiche anzutreffen, die nur einem Geschlecht vorbehalten sind, zum Beispiel Busse, Einkaufscenter oder Restaurants.

Bis dahin wurden solche Einrichtungen nur von privaten Besitzern angeboten. In den beratenden Ministerrat Schura des saudischen Regierungsrates, dem vorher nur Männer angehörten, wurden im Juni erstmals sechs Frauen berufen.

Viele Berufe waren den Frauen nicht zugänglich, heute ist ihnen fast jeder Beruf zugänglich, allerdings unter der Voraussetzung strikter Geschlechtertrennung am Arbeitsplatz, was ein Problem bei der Beschäftigung bei ausländischen Firmen verursacht, weswegen die strikte Trennung — z.

Es bleibt ihnen weiterhin versagt, ohne Einverständnis eines männlichen Familienmitglieds zu studieren oder zu reisen. So wurden bei den letzten Wahlen der Handelskammer auch zwei Frauen in den Vorstand gewählt.

In der Grundordnung des Königreiches ist der Schleier nicht explizit erwähnt; dass Frauen ihn in der Öffentlichkeit trotzdem tragen müssen, ergibt sich aus den Art.

Weibliche Familienangehörige nicht-islamischer Expatriierter oder andere Besucherinnen des Königreichs müssen den Körper mit einer schwarzen Kutte verhüllen, können die Haare jedoch unverhüllt lassen.

Während dies in den inneren Provinzen selten zu beobachten ist, ist es in den Industriestädten am Persischen Golf unter westlichen und fernöstlichen Frauen üblich, die Haare nicht zu verschleiern.

Anders als im Iran, in dem die Verschleierung des weiblichen Haars einer Doktrin folgt und ein freizügiges Tragen des Kopftuches sehr verbreitet ist, folgt die saudische Tradition einem pragmatischen Verhüllen der Weiblichkeit.

Diese erlaubt es, das Haar unbedeckt zu lassen. Homosexuelle Handlungen stehen in Saudi-Arabien unter Strafe. Vergehen werden meist mit körperlicher Züchtigung oder Gefängnis bestraft.

Für Geschlechtsverkehr zwischen Männern kann die Todesstrafe verhängt werden, wohingegen Frauen meist nur mit Peitschenhieben bestraft werden.

Ein Kriminalfall von weiblicher Homosexualität ist in Saudi-Arabien bisher nicht bekannt. Natürlich gelten auch alle Einschränkungen der persönlichen und politischen Freiheit für ausländische Gäste.

Auch islamische Pilger, die jedes Jahr zu Millionen nach Mekka reisen, unterliegen vielen Auflagen, so werden den Pilgern zum Beispiel oft Amulette abgenommen, weil die Wahhabiten diese für heidnisch halten.

Weiterhin bestehen strenge Kleidungs- und Verhaltensvorschriften, die nach dem konservativen wahhabitischen Islamverständnis ausgelegt werden.

Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, Bürotätigkeiten, Postdienst, Autoverkauf, Einzelhandel oder Tätigkeiten als Reiseführer dürfen von Gastarbeitern nicht ausgeübt werden.

Doch das neue Gesetz stärkt auch die Rechte der Gastarbeiter: Arbeitgeber sind zu schriftlichen Arbeitsverträgen sowie zur Übernahme sämtlicher Kosten der Ein- und Ausreise verpflichtet.

Author Since: Oct 02, 2012